Why should I care about high blood pressure in men?
High blood pressure -- in men and women -- is a big problem. One in every three adult Americans -- about 65 million people -- have high blood pressure, also known as hypertension. Many more are at risk of developing it. Over half of all Americans 60 and older have it and over a lifetime, the risk of developing high blood pressure is 90%.
Typically, blood pressure increases with age. Risk of high blood pressure begins to climb when men hit 45, although it can occur in younger men. African-Americans tend to develop it younger and have more severe hypertension. Obesity or a family history of high blood pressure also increases risk.
Did You Know?
Under the Affordable Care Act, many health insurance plans will cover preventive care services, including blood pressure and cholesterol screenings, at no cost to you. Learn more.
High blood pressure is especially dangerous because people can have it for years without knowing. In fact, one in three Americans with the condition doesn’t know it.
Despite these gloomy statistics, high blood pressure is not inevitable. There is plenty you can do to prevent, delay, and treat the condition.
What is high blood pressure?
Blood pumping through the circulatory system is under pressure, much like the water in the pipes of a house. And just as too much water pressure can damage pipes and faucets, high blood pressure can spell trouble. Hypertension occurs when the force exerted against artery walls is abnormally high.
Over time, the increased pressure can cause a wide range of problems. Small bulges, called aneurysms, may form in blood vessels. The heart can become enlarged, increasing the danger of heart failure. Damage to blood vessels in the kidneys can cause them to fail. Because tiny blood vessels in the eyes are especially vulnerable to damage, hypertension can lead to vision problems and even blindness.
Many factors can lead to high blood pressure. Clearly, diet plays a role. Too much salt, too little potassium, and too much alcohol have all been found to increase the risk of high blood pressure. Too much stress and too little physical activity both increase the danger of developing high blood pressure, as does being overweight or obese. And as with many chronic illnesses, high blood pressure also tends to run in families, suggesting that genetics play a role.
In some patients, high blood pressure is related to other medical problems or can be a side effect of certain drugs. This form of the disease is called secondary hypertension, because it happens secondary to other medical conditions.
High blood pressure is usually diagnosed using the familiar blood pressure test that involves a cuff wrapped around the upper arm. The cuff is inflated and then sensors measure the pressure of blood beating against the arteries.
Blood pressure is measured using two numbers -- systolic and diastolic pressure. Systolic, the upper number, is the pressure when the heart is beating. Diastolic, the lower number, is the pressure between beats. Normal blood pressure is considered to be anything below 120/80. Prehypertension is defined as a systolic reading between 120 and 139 and a diastolic reading between 80 and 89. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure of 140/90 or higher. For people with diabetes or chronic kidney disease, hypertension is defined as 130/80.